Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Labridae
Etymology: Symphodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 4742). Subtropical, preferred ?; 48°N - 30°N, 10°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Gulf of Gascogne to Gibraltar including the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 5 - 7 cm
Max length : 17.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4742); common length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4742); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 4742)
Adults are found near rocks, mainly in eel-grass beds (Ref. 4742). Mainly solitary (Ref. 4742). Nest of seaweed built by male (Ref. 4742). Feed on mollusks, bivalves, gastropods, shrimps, sea-urchins and hydroids (Ref. 4742). Males grow faster than females (Ref. 4742). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Each male builds a nest of seaweed for one or two females to spawn in (Ref. 4742).
Quignard, J.-P. and A. Pras, 1986. Labridae. p. 919-942. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4742)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00624 - 0.02017), b=3.00 (2.85 - 3.15), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.44 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.20-0.62; tm=1; tmax=8).
Prior r = 1.15, 2 SD range = 0.51 - 2.60, log(r) = 0.14, SD log(r) = 0.41, Based on: 2 K, 1 tgen, 1 tmax, records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .