Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 30 m (Ref. 3490). Tropical, preferred ?
Western Indian Ocean: west coast of India and Sri Lanka.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3490); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3490)
(total): 10 - 11;
soft rays: 7. Snout swollen, projecting beyond the ventral mouth. Mental pores surrounded by thickened skin, produced into two short, irregular tags between the median and first lateral pores. Teeth differentiated into large and small upper jaw, those in the outer row close-set and enlarged, but not canine-like. Lower jaw teeth uniformly villiform. Sagitta with a tadpole-shaped impression, the "tail" of which is expanded and deepened as a hollow cone. Gillrakers short and narrow, 6 or 7 on lower limb of first arch. Second part of dorsal fin with 1 spine and 25-229 soft rays. Swim bladder hammer-shaped, with 13 or 14 pairs of arborescent appendages, the first branching in the head.
Occurs in coastal waters. Feeds on benthic worms and crustaceans. Marketed fresh and also dried salted.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lal Mohan, R.S., 1984. Sciaenidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3490)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00391 - 0.01767), b=3.10 (2.94 - 3.26), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.39 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .