Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Sardinella: Latin and Greek, sarda = sardine; name related to the island of Sardinia; diminutive (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 70 m (Ref. 12260). Tropical, preferred 28°C (Ref. 107945); 41°N - 25°S, 43°E - 135°E (Ref. 54868)
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf, East Africa and Madagascar to Indonesia, north to Taiwan and Korea south to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819) and northern Australia. Often confused with Sardinella fimbriata in Indian waters.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 12.7  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); common length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 1488)
soft rays: 12 - 23. Total number scutes 32 to 34. Vertical striae on scales not meeting at center, numerous small perforations on hind part of scale. A golden mid-lateral line down flank; dorsal and caudal fin margins dusky; a dark spot at dorsal fin origin. Lower gill rakers 45 to 59 (at 6 to 17 cm standard length, not increasing with size of fish after 6 cm standard length).
Forms schools in coastal waters. Feeds on phytoplankton and zooplankton (crustacean and molluscan larvae) (Ref. 5213, 5284). The diet is predominantly crustacean in the early stages and seems to change to a diet of crustaceans and phytoplankton with increase in length (Ref. 34224). Marketed fresh, dried-salted, boiled or made into fish balls. Possible or even probable confusion with other species (especially S. fimbriata in Indian waters) makes published biological data potentially unreliable.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00650 - 0.01539), b=2.95 (2.82 - 3.08), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.30 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.32-1.8; tmax=7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .