Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Incertae sedis
Etymology: Spratelloides: Old German, sprotte (1611) = a small fish, Clupea sp. + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
The species in the genera Spratelloides Bleeker, 1851 and Jenkinsia Jordan & Evermann, 1896 should most probably be assigned to a separated family from Clupeidae and Dussumieriidae (Lavoué, pers. comm., July 2013). See a preliminary analysis in Lavoué et al. (2013: Ref. 93878).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range ? - 40 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical, preferred 28°C (Ref. 107945); 40°N - 28°S, 31°E - 134°W (Ref. 188)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea south to Zanzibar and east to the western Pacific (Japan south through the Philippines to southeastern and western Australia, east to Samoa (excluding the Cook, Society and Marquesas islands) and the Tuamoto Islands. Occurs in Palau and the Marshall Islands (Ref. 37816).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 4 - ? cm
Max length : 10.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 54980)
soft rays: 12 - 13. Maxilla toothed, triangular pre-maxillae, 2 supra-maxillae, second supra-maxilla asymmetrical (lower part larger than upper part), vertical striae on scales not meeting at center; W-shaped pelvic scute; few branchiostegal rays (6 or 7).
Usually an inshore schooling species, inhabiting relatively clear waters of coastal, lagoon, and seaward reefs (Ref. 11230). Relative fecundity is 1596 eggs per unit body weight (Ref. 4383). Caught with beach seines, purse seines, ringnets and dipnets. Marketed fresh or dried-salted (Ref. 5213). Used as bait in the tuna fishery.
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00287 - 0.00918), b=3.11 (2.95 - 3.27), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.41-0.44; tm<1).
Prior r = 1.61, 2 SD range = 0.39 - 6.69, log(r) = 0.48, SD log(r) = 0.71, Based on: 1 M, 4 K, 1 tgen, 1 tmax, 4 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .