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Symphurus callopterus  Munroe & Mahadeva, 1989

Chocolate tonguefish
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Symphurus callopterus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Symphurus callopterus (Chocolate tonguefish)
Symphurus callopterus
Picture by Robertson, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae (Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 18 - 317 m (Ref. 9294), usually 60 - 110 m (Ref. 9294).   Tropical, preferred ?; 25°N -

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: Mexico to Peru.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9294); common length : 14.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9294)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 105-114; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 91 - 98; Vertebrae: 57 - 61. Body flat, somewhat elongated, with an oval anterior border; both eyes on left side of head; dorsal fin with 105 to 114 rays, anal fin with 91 to 98 rays; caudal fin with 12 rays; body chocolate brown, usually with 9 to 11 indistinct transverse bars; lower half of operculum on the eyed side with a small stain; posterior side of dorsal and anal fins dark, rectangular stains (Ref. 55763).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Probably caught as a bycatch in trawl fisheries (Ref. 9294).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Munroe, T.A., F. Krupp and M. Schneider, 1995. Cynoglossidae. Lenguas, lenguetas. p. 1039-1059. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9294)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00604 - 0.02878), b=3.03 (2.84 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.