Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Dasyatidae
Etymology: Dasyatis: Greek, dasys = rough, dense (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 36 m (Ref. 13608). Tropical, preferred ?; 22°N - 24°S, 97°W - 30°W
Western Atlantic: southern Gulf of Mexico and West Indies to Santos, Brazil.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 65.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 3168); common length : 125 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 6077)
Disc rhomboid. Blunt and close-set tubercles that clothe the midzone of disc. Snout in front of eyes about 1.4 times as long as distance between outer margins of orbits. Upper surface brown, sometimes yellowish or olivaceous. Lower surface pure or yellowish white, ventral tail fold and dorsal keel black (Ref. 6902).
Inhabits shallow waters. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Mobile invertebrate feeders, feeds on benthic mobile invertebrates such as molluscs, crustaceans and worms associated with hard or nearby unconsolidated substrate (Ref. 103985). Marketed salted; also used in the preparation of gelatin and good quality oil. Between 1995 and 2000, at least 5 specimens have been traded as aquarium fish at Ceará, Brazil (Ref. 49392).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Stehmann, M., J.D. McEachran and R. Vergara R., 1978. Dasyatidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Vol. 1. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3168)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 3168)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .