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Diplectrum formosum  (Linnaeus, 1766)

Sand perch
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Diplectrum formosum
Picture by Johnson, L.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Serraninae
Etymology: Diplectrum: Greek, di = two + Greek, plektron = sting, spur (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 80 m (Ref. 5217).   Subtropical; 42°N - 35°S, 98°W - 28°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA, the northern Gulf of Mexico and the Bahamas southward to Uruguay. Occurrence in western Caribbean is doubtful (Ref. 26938).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 12.9  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 7 - 8. Body pale brown dorsally with several vertical dark brown bars, becoming white ventrally; dorsal fin dusky with longitudinal yellow lines; pectoral, pelvic and anal fins dusky; caudal fin dusky with small yellow blotches (Ref. 13608). Preopercle has spines radiating from 2 centers (Ref. 26938).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits bays, coastal grassy areas and shallow banks. Solitary (Ref. 26340) and retreats into shelter when frightened (Ref. 9710). Neither opercular spine nor anterolateral glandular grooves with venom gland is present (Ref. 57406). Synchronously hermaphroditic. Popular as a pan fish despite its small size.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Simultaenous hermaphrodite. The gonad contains ovarian and testicular tissue separated by a thin basement membrane, with no means of internal self-fertilization.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless (Ref. 57406)




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5002   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00736 - 0.01131), b=3.10 (3.05 - 3.15), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.29-1.5; tm=1.01).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.