Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Stellifer: Latin, stella = satr + latin, fero = to carry (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 40 m (Ref. 9626), usually ? - 20 m (Ref. 9626). Tropical, preferred ?
Western Atlantic: Colombia to southern Brazil (Ref. 3702) and range extended to Uruguay (Ref.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 9.8  range ? - 16 cm
Max length : 32.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 94907); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Occurs in coastal waters, over soft, muddy bottoms (Ref. 5217). Abundant in brackish estuaries (Ref. 5217). Feeds mainly on small crustaceans, often hunting in schools (Ref. 4537, 35237). Mostly used in the manufacture of sub-products (Ref. 3702).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cervigón, F., 1993. Los peces marinos de Venezuela. Volume 2. Fundación Científica Los Roques, Caracas,Venezuela. 497 p. (Ref. 9626)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00683 - 0.01013), b=3.10 (3.07 - 3.13), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .