Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Anabantidae
Etymology: Sandelia: Greek, sandalion, -ou = a kind of fish related to a sandal (shoe) (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Subtropical; 18°C - 22°C (Ref. 2060), preferred ?; 31°S - 34°S
Africa: southern and southwestern Cape coastal rivers from the Coega River (Algoa Bay) to the Cape Flats and north to the Verlorenvlei. Introduced into the Clanwilliam Olifants system.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248)
Hardy, occurs in various habitats. Favors quiet or slow-flowing water and plant or root cover. Feeds on insects and other invertebrates and small fish. Breeds in summer; males defend a breeding territory and guard the eggs which are scattered and sticking to the bottom. Many populations have declined and are threatened by habitat destruction and predation from introduced bass (Ref. 7248).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Males guard the eggs. Substrate spawners (Ref. 41595). Upon hatching, larvae adhered permanently to the substrate at the nesting site where they were guarded by the male (Ref. 41595).
Gosse, J.-P., 1986. Anabantidae. p. 402-414. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6803)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00704 - 0.03912), b=2.98 (2.78 - 3.18), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.56 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .