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(english) Characters in two taxa are considered homolog if they meet one of two conditions: 1) they are the same character that is found in an immediate common ancestor of the two taxa; or 2) the character is in one taxon the same as in the immediate ancestor and is in the other taxon the same but modified (derived) from the state in the common ancestor. The ancestral (= primitive) character is termed plesiomorphic, while the derived (= novel) character is termed apomorphic. (See also: homoplasy, character, tree)
(french) Caractères des deux taxa : 1) même caractère trouvé dans un ancêtre commun immédiat des deux taxa ; ou 2) même caractère trouvé dans l'ancêtre immédiat d'un taxon et de l'autre taxon, même caractère modifié (dérivé) trouvé dans l'ancêtre commun. Le caractère ancestral (= primitif) est appelé 'plésiomorphe', pendant que le caractère dérivé (= nouveau) est appelé 'apomorphe'. (See also: homoplasy, character, tree)

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